1519-1521    Hernan Cortez and his Spanish conquistadors overthrew the Aztec Empire and killed its last Emperor, Cuahtémoc.
1523-1821    Viceroys ruled "New Spain"which claimed its northeast boundary near what today is Charleston, SC and its northwestern outposts at San Francisco. CA and Taos, NM.
1540    Expansion northward: Soto in present southeast United States; Coronado in southwest; Cabrillo in California.
1571    "Spanish Galleon" began run between Acapulco and Manila.
1763    New Spain lost Florida to Great Britain but gained Louisiana from France.
1767    Expulsion of Jesuits.
1780    Governor Bernardo de Galvez from New Orleans fought British and regained the Floridas during the American War of Independence.
1789    French Revolution: its doctrines spread to Latin America, where Creoles wanted to supplant Gachupines (Peninsular-born whites) in office.
1803    Napoleon took Louisiana back from New Spain but sold it to the United States.
1808    Napoleon deposed Spanish king and replaced him with his brother, Joseph, precipitating revolution and the Peninsular War and, ultimately, his own downfall.
Sep 16, 1810   Father Manuel Hidalgo called for Mexican independence from Spain in "el gríto de Delores" and this became Mexico's Independence Day. However, the struggle denigrated into guerilla warfare as the masses -- Mestizos and Indians -- rose against whites -- Gachupines and Creoles.
Feb 24, 1821   General Augustín de Iturbide signed the Plan of Iguala to establish the new nation: conservative rule to protect upper orders against the masses. In July, the last Viceroy, Juan O'Donojú, recognized Mexican independence in the Treaty of Córdoba. Iturbide proclaimed himself Emperor Iturbide I. In the same year, Austins began American settlement of Texas.
1823    General Santa Anna deposed Iturbide and declared a Republic. Bitter struggle began between centrists (conservatives) and federalists (liberals), continuing to 1860.
1824-1834    First federalist regime. Centrists allied with Scottish Rite Masons (Escoces) and federalists with York Rite Masons (Yorkinos).
1834-1846    Santa Anna turned his coat and led Centrists to power.
Mar 1, 1836   Because of Santa Anna's centrization, Texas declared its independence and won it at the Battle of San Jacinto.
Dec 29, 1845   The United States annexed the Republic of Texas. President James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to settle differences but war party in Mexico under Paredes won out.
1846-1848    US-Mexican War. Four campaigns -- Taylor in Northern Mexico, Kearny in New Mexico, naval blockage of both coasts and Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City.
Oct 13, 1847   Aztec Club of 1847 organized in Mexico City with General John A. Quitman, of Mississippi, as its first President.
Feb 2, 1848   Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the War. Terms of peace included payment by the United States of $15 million for Mexico Cession.
1857    A new constitution and a liberal victory, but three years of civil war followed until Benito Juarez emerged as liberal leader and President.
1861    European intervention during the American Civil War by Great Britain, Spain and France. First two withdrew shortly thereafter.
1863    French army captured Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Hungary, a Hapsburg, proclaimed second Emperor of Mexico.
1865-1867    The Civil War ended, the United States sent troops to the border, the French withdrew and Maximilian is executed at Querétaro. Empress Carlotta went mad.
1867-1872    Juarez is again President of Mexico; died in office.
1877-1911    Porfirio Diáz dictator of Mexico for all but four years. Encouraged foreign exploitation of Mexico's natural wealth, but Mexico City becomes a metropolis.
1910-1920    Mexican Revolution -- Madero, Huerta, Carranza, Villa and Zapata.
1914    United States seized Vera Cruz in dispute with conservative dictator Huerta.
1916    Villa's raid on Columbus, NM was followed by Pershing's punitive expedition into Northern Mexico with 12,000 troops. The U. S. National Guard is sent to the Mexican border.
1917    U. S. withdrew on eve of its entry into World War I. New Mexican constitution adopted.
1920    Obregón overthrew and killed Carranza.
1920-1934    Revolutionary reorganization. Calles President in 1924, suppressed Roman Catholic Church and nationalized oil. Obregón, again elected President in 1928, was assassinated and Calles took over once more.
1934    Lazaro Cardenas (father of Mexico City's new mayor, Cuahtemóc) elected President and revived social revolution, organized labor, instituted land reform and expropriated foreign-owned property.
1941-1945    World War II. After Pearl Harbor, Mexico, under President Avila Camacho, declared war on the Axis. U. S.-Mexican friendship cemented. Mexican Air Force Squadron 201, flying P-47s, fought Japanese in the Philippines, serving with the U. S. Far East Air Corps.
1946    Miguel Alemán elected first civilian President since Madero in 1911.
Aug 12, 1992   Mexico joined the U. S. and Canada in NAFTA, effective January 1, 1994.
Dec 1, 1994   Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon inaugurated President of Mexico.
1995    Mexican banking crisis. With U. S. aid the Mexican economy recovers.

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